Sunday, April 22, 2018

Become part of our community

captcha 

Medellin-based multinational electric power giant EPM announced April 18 the launch of a novel floating solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation scheme at El Peñol lake, adjacent to the company’s 560-megawatt Guatape hydroelectric power station in Antioquia.

The floating PV station will be the first of its kind in Spanish-speaking Latin America, according to EPM.

The solar panels are projected to generate 10% to 15% more power than similar systems installed on land or on rooftops. Rationale: The floating panels can take advantage of unhindered solar illumination on lakes (where there are no shadows), get an extra boost of reflected light off the lake, and tap “free” lake water -- conveniently available for cooling the panels, explained EPM general manager Jorge Londoño de la Cuesta.

The El Peñol array includes 368 panels, connected via submarine cable to an existing, nearby EPM electric power substation. Total area of the array covers 1,430 square meters, with each panel measured at 99 x 60 centimeters, according to EPM.

“With this system, which has an installed capacity of 100 kilowatts (kW) in two modules of 50kW each, we expect to generate approximately 145 megawatt-hours per year, enough to power 15 houses for a full year,” according to EPM.

The electricity generated by the new array will be used internally at EPM’s Guatape hydroelectric power station, according to the company.

A “big data” program will analyze the power-array’s efficiency and reliability in real time over the next 12 months. Depending on results of the test, EPM then would be able to define the feasibility of expanding similar floating-PV systems to more areas.

“In many countries, installing large-scale solar PV systems on land is inhibited by the lack of space available,” Londoño de la Cuesta said. “Because of that, floating PV stations could become an alternative,” he added.


Medellin-based national electric-power grid operator and power-trading center XM announced April 17 that power demand in Colombia is up 3% year-on-year through first-quarter (1Q) 2018, compared to a 1.8% net year-on-year decline in 1Q 2017.

Over the past 12 months (through March 2018), Colombian power demand is up 2.5%, whereas power demand actually fell 1.5% over the comparable 12-month period in 2016-2017, XM found.

Meanwhile, power demand in Antioquia rose 3.7% year-on-year for the month of March 2018, versus a 3.2% net decline year-on-year in March 2017.

The power-demand figures indicate that Colombia generally and Antioquia specifically are starting to emerge from recessions that hit in 2016 and especially 2017, when a hike in value-added tax (VAT) slammed consumer spending and (consequently) industrial output.

For the month of March 2018, national power demand rose 4.4% year-on-year, compared to a 0.3% year-on-year contraction in March 2017, XM noted.

The relatively strong demand growth has exceeded prognostications by Colombia’s national energy-planning agency -- the “Unidad de Planeación Minero Energética" (UPME), XM noted.

Residential and small-business demand grew 4.4% in March 2018 versus March 2017, while combined industrial-commercial demand in March 2018 grew an even stronger 4.6% year-on-year, the agency noted. However, manufacuturing demand in March grew by just 0.8% year-on-year, according to XM.

The greatest year-on-year demand growth in March 2018 was in Guaviare department (up 9.4% year-on-year), while the Tolima-Huila-Caqueta region saw demand jump 8.1%, and the Atlantic Coast region saw demand grow 6.8%, XM found.


Colombia’s Agencia Nacional de Infraestructura (ANI, the national infrastructure development agency) announced April 11 the successful relaunch of rail freight transport on a 522-kilometers-long line aiming to link Atlantic ports to the interior -- passing through Antioquia on the way.

ANI spent COP$212 billion (US$78 million) on the rail-line rehab project, aiming to cut freight costs between Atlantic ports and centers of industry in the Colombian interior.

Following the track upgrades, ANI this week organized a test shipment of 700 tonnes of steel and cement – first loaded at a rail-freight terminal in Chiriguaná in Cesar department, near Cartagena. Then, after passing through Cesar, Santander and Antioquia, the train made its final unloading at La Dorada in Caldas department, near Bogota.

“What we are demonstrating is that the train has the capacity to operate, to be competitive and is already moving cargo in a real way,” said ANI president Dimitri Zaninovich.

Test-run participants included the Ibines Férreo railway consortium and train operator Trencar.

Steel and cement shippers GyJ and Ultracem initially moved this cargo in highway trucks from the port of Barranquilla to the Chiriguaná rail transfer point. Then, following rail-freight arrival at La Dorada, this freight was to be transloaded to highway trucks bound for Ibague and Bogotá.

The new rail-freight option “is a reliable and safe means of transport, which reduces [air] pollution, is efficient in times and can move cargo in large volumes, while also complementing very well with other modes of transport such as road and river,” according to ANI.

However, the narrow-gauge railway infrastructure employed along this route would present problems for moving standard ocean containers. In addition, the rehabbed track doesn’t reach all the way to major ocean ports in Barranquilla and Cartagena, where much of Colombia’s nationwide containerized freight is now trans-shipped via highway trucks.

What’s more, a new “fourth generation” divided highway linking Medellin to Puerto Berrio, Antioquia -- near the newly rehabbed rail line -- has yet to be completed. Hence a future intermodal freight connection between the rehabbed rail line and the new highway linking Medellin to Puerto Berrio looks to be several years away.


Medellin-based multinational utilities giant EPM on April 7 presented highlights of 2017 results including impressive growth in profitability along with expansion of water, power, garbage-collection, sewer and natural-gas services to thousands more customers in the metro area.

In a press conference, EPM general manager Jorge Londoño de la Cuesta and Medellin Mayor Federico Gutiérrez pointed-out that EPM power and garbage-collection services now cover more than 97% of Medellín residents.

Drinking-water service now reaches 95.7% of Medellin homes and businesses, while sewage connections now cover 92.25%. Piped natural gas from EPM has now grown to reach 82.75% of homes and businesses.

As for new connections, EPM added 76,741 more customers here to its electric power service last year, which now totals 2.37 million customers. Meanwhile, natural-gas hookups last year added 66,624 customers, resulting in 1.3 million total gas clients.

As for drinking water, EPM hooked-up another 41,121 new clients last year, resulting in 1.18 million total clients, while sewage hook-ups last year added 42,221 more customers, resulting in 1.15 million total clients as of year-end 2017.

As for rural electrification, EPM connected another 2,292 homes in remote areas around Antioquia last year, benefitting another 9,168 persons. Rural electrification campaigns have now hooked-up 107,156 homes in Antioquia, benefitting 444,745 residents, the company added.

‘Pay What You Can’ Expands

As for EPM’s pioneering “pay what you can” (“paga a tu medida”) program for low-income customers – enabling generous, extended payment terms – another 51,070 customers signed-up for this program last year, with 120,708 added since the program began in 2014.

Similarly, EPM’s pioneering pre-paid system for power and water services added 22,084 low-income clients last year in Antioquia, with 242,956 homes now taking advantage of this option.

Unlike some areas in Colombia (especially the Atlantic coast) where theft of power via illegal connections is rampant in low-income areas – resulting in catastrophic losses for local utilities and as a result a predictably unreliable power supply – EPM delivers reliable, high-quality, socially-conscious power and water services to all economic strata thanks to tiered rates and prepaid options.

Prepaid-power and tiered power rates – subsidizing the poorest customers, but not by 100% -- along with rational power use (prepaid for real needs, not wasted frivolously) helps ensure that EPM meets triple goals of ensuring financial soundness, quality service delivery and real help for the most vulnerable in society.

Environmental Defense

While EPM’s soon-to-launch “Hidroituango” hydroelectric plant in Antioquia – now more than 80% complete -- will inundate thousands of hectares of environmentally sensitive areas upriver of the new dam, EPM last year in compensation added 22,575 hectares of protected areas in the hydrogeographic basins of Porce (Río Grande, Río Aburrá and Porce-Alto Nechí); Nare (La Fe and Río Negro-Nare); Cauca (areas near the Hidroituango dam); and Chinchiná, the latter in the zone of influence of EPM’s “Aguas Regionales en Urabá” affiliate in the Uraba region of Antioquia.

On the air-pollution-reduction front, EPM added 10 new electric vehicle (EV) recharging stations in the Medellin metro area last year, part of a planned long-term switch aiming to replace thousands of high-polluting diesel and gasoline vehicles with zero-emission EVs. Part of this plan includes replacing 1,500 conventional combustión-engine taxis with EV taxis over the next three years, the company added.

EPM also is working with Renting Colombia and Localiza Rent a Car to enable public renting of EVs, and it's also working with the Medellin “Metro” public transit agency to expand the conversion of more conventional transit buses and motorcycles to electric power.

The company also recently added two more “micro” hydroelectric plants in Antioquia last year (La Vuelta and La Herradura), avoiding emissions of 72,908 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). Meanwhile, the recently installed “Los Cururos” solar-power station in Antioquia has achieved another 266,814 tonnes reduction of CO2e, according to the company.

As for water pollution reduction, EPM’s soon-to-open “Aguas Claras” sewage-treatment plant in Bello, Antioquia – now more than 91% complete -- will slash raw-sewage dumping into the Rio Medellin by more than 120 tonnes per day, the company added.

Similarly, in the San Nicolas valley region just east of Medellin, EPM is launching a COP$19.6 billion (US$7 million) project to expand clean-water and sewage-treatment systems for customers in metro Rionegro, El Retiro and rural areas of Envigado.

On a related front, EPM recently acquired 100% of the stock of Empresas Públicas de Rionegro (E.P. Rio), enabling improved and expanded water and sewage services for 30,308 customers in the urban area of Rionegro, the company added.


Canada-based multinationals Gran Colombia Gold (GCC) and Red Eagle Mining (REM) in late March both reported progress in their gold mining operations here in Antioquia during 2017.
 
For GCC, adjusted net income for fourth quarter (4Q) 2017 nearly tripled, to US$9.1 million, from US$3.4 million in 4Q 2016. Similarly, for full-year 2017, GCC’s adjusted net income rose to US$23 million, up from US$15.6 million in 2016.
 
“The improvement in 2017’s annual adjusted net income compared with last year reflects the positive impact on income from operations of the higher gold production this year, lower financing costs due to debt reductions, and a decrease in Colombian wealth tax compared with the prior year,” according to GCC.
 
As for Red Eagle, full-year 2017 net loss worsened year-on-year, to US$15.7 million, compared to a net loss of US$6.9 million in 2016.
 
“The [2017] net loss increased compared to the 2016 period primarily due to increased mine site expenses, as less costs were capitalized during 2017, mineral property exploration costs [rose] at Santa Rosa as regional targets were drilled for the first time, and interest expense [rose]. Total assets and shareholders’ equity increased primarily due to increased mine development,” REM added. 
 
“The focus for the second half of 2017 was to complete enough underground development to support sustainable production and give access to underground drill pads.
 
“With most of the new equipment having arrived at site through February and March [2018] and the final scoops due for delivery in April, the mine is planned to ramp up to 750 tonnes per day in second-quarter 2018.
 
“The additional underground development and infill drilling will allow consistent production resulting in an estimated 45,000 ounces of gold produced during 2018. The mine now has sufficient underground development to support sustainable production,” REM added. 
 
GCC Highlights
 
Commenting on recent progress, GCC executive co-chairman Serafino Iacono added that “our 2017 results demonstrate that we are firing on all cylinders [as] 2017’s gold production was up 16% from 2016.
 
“Adjusted EBITDA [earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization] increased by 14% over last year and is almost double the amount reported for 2015. Excess cash flow came in as expected at US$16.4 million.
 
“At Segovia [Antioquia], we added more ounces to our mineral resource estimate through exploration than we mined in 2017 and we reported our first ever mineral reserve for the project today.
 
“We continued to invest in the infrastructure at Segovia, not just in mine development and mining equipment but in areas that raise the bar in health and safety, environmental management and through our foundation, social projects that benefit the community,” he added.
 
Gran Colombia exceeded its guidance for 2017 with total gold production reaching 173,821 ounces, up 16% over 2016, according to the company.
 
“Fueled by continued growth in the company’s high-grade Segovia operations, total gold production increased to 51,699 ounces in the fourth quarter of 2017, up 26% over the fourth quarter last year.
 
“Gran Colombia expects its Segovia operations will produce 158,000 to 167,000 ounces in 2018, raising 2018’s total gold production guidance to a range of 182,000 to 193,000 ounces,” the company added.
 

Medellin-based multinational personal-hygiene products manufacturer Grupo Familia announced March 23 that its full-year 2017 consolidated net income more than doubled year-on-year, to COP$231 billion (US$81 million).

Operating income also rose 75% year-on-year, to COP$343 billion (US$120 million), according to the company.

Gross income rose slightly (just under 2%) year-on-year, to COP$2.3 trillion (US$809 million) in the eight countries where Familia now operates.

Familia also boasted that it launched 15 new products last year, under its various brand names, including “Nosotras,” “Pomys,” “Petys,” “Pequeñín,” and “Familia,” according to the company.

Grupo Familia also noted that its 2017 highlights included purchase of 100% of the stock of Dominican Republic-based product distributor Continental de Negocios, for US$16.5 million.

During 2017, Familia also launched a partnership with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to review the company’s environmental sustainability plans.

Finally, subsequent to the close of fiscal year 2017, Grupo Familia also noted that it has now completed the buy-out of 100% of the stock of Productos Sancela del Peru, for US$37.7 million. That move bolsters Familia's market strength in Peru and Bolivia, the company added.


Medellin’s “Ruta N” technology-company hosting center announced March 22 that Madrid-based Konecta now has 100 engineers working here -- and exporting services to nine countries including Spain, Portugal, United Kingdom, Morroco, Argentina, Chile, México, Perú and Brazil.

Konecta offers business process outsourcing (BPO, software development and a contact center for “diverse sectors,” according to Ruta N.

The company’s goals for 2018 include updating its technology capacity and providing “effective mechanisms to connect clients with solutions for their needs,” according to Ruta N.

“Our company’s strategy defined the need to centralize software development in one country,” added Konecta Colombia president José Roberto Sierra.

“We analyzed different alternatives before finally deciding upon Medellin, given the high availability in this city of professionals with good qualifications, as well as the decided commitment of local government in favor of innovation and development of projects in the technology sector,” he added.

With coordinated help from Colombian business-development agency Procolombia, Ruta N and Medellin’s ACI (Agencia de Coopercion e Inversion de Medellin y el Area Metropolitana), Konecta first installed its multi-disciplinary innovation center in October 2017, the agency noted.

Separately, Konecta announced February 1 that its full-year 2017 sales hit €770 million (COP$2.7 trillion) thanks to “sustained organic growth” along with integration of recently acquired Allus and B-Connect in Latin America.

“Over the past year, [Konecta] launched a digital transformation and efficiency unit, as well as Konecta Software Factory, its center for technological innovation in Medellin,” the company added.

“Looking ahead, Konecta will keep on searching for opportunities that favor its growth in the American, Brazilian, and European markets, to allow Konecta to meet its goal of ranking among the top world’s five companies in the sector,” according to the company.


Medellin-based textile manufacturer Fabricato announced March 21 its that full-year 2017 net loss grew to COP$6.4 billion (US$2.2 million), down from a COP$845 million (US$295,000) net loss in 2016.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) fell to a negative COP$3.2 billion (US$1.1 million) , down from a positive COP$26.9 billion (US$9.4 million) in 2016.

Sales also declined 12.5% year-on-year, to COP$337 billion (US$117 million), down from COP$385 billion (US$134 million) in 2016.

Meanwhile, fellow Medellin-based textile giant Coltejer reported a net loss of COP$24 billion (US$8.4 million) in 2017, worse than the net loss of COP$7.7 billion (US$2.7 million) in 2016. Coltejer's sales likewise declined 30% year-on-year, to COP$169 billion (US$59 million), down from COP$241 billion (US$84 million) in 2016.

Operating income also fell 23% year-on-year, to COP$212 billion (US$74 million), down from COP$277 billion (US$96 million) in 2016, according to Coltejer.

“The net loss of the year is basically due to financial expenses, plus a drop in the domestic market which led to a reduction in production -- due to the importation of Asian products at a low price,” Coltejer added.

On a similar note, Fabricato explained that "the general business environment in Colombia in 2017 was unfavorable, as reflected in the lower level of growth in the country in recent years.

“The year [2017] began with a significant reduction in consumer confidence, a variable that has not fully recovered and that influenced sales and production indices throughout 2017,” as textile production nationwide fell 7.6% and clothing manufacture declined 8.4% year-on-year, according to Fabricato.

“Also during 2017, the textile-clothing chain faced acute competition based on unfair practices from imports of fabrics and finished products. At the end of the year, the national government implemented corrective measures to combat these unfair practices, which will surely improve the business environment for Colombian companies in 2018, namely:

“1. The resolution accepting the antidumping proceeding against denim of Chinese origin. Figures accumulated from January to October 2017 reveal that 17.2 million tons of fabrics entered [Colombia] below the price of US$4.63 per-kilo at the end of the year. This represents 72% of total denim imports in this same period, with China being the main country of origin, followed by India.

“2. Corrective measures: Decree 2218 defines more stringent customs controls for imports to combat textiles with ostensibly low prices (below US$2.50 per kilo). The average price of these imports in 2017 was US$1.36 per kilo.

“For a reference, the average price of cotton (the main raw material of these products) on the world market in the same period was US$1.58 per kilo.

“3. There were also intensified police operations that led to important achievements against smuggling, including the apprehension of large volumes of products illegally entered into the country, and the [shut-down] of several companies . . .

“Understanding the movements by both Fabricato [to reduce production] and the national government [to block illegal imports] in 2017, the impacts expected for [2018] are as follows:

“Despite our consolidation of production in a single industrial unit [at Bello, Antioquia], Fabricato starts its operation in 2018 without affecting installed capacity in relation to 2017. As a natural consequence, better efficiency is expected, lower operating costs and lower administrative costs, that is, a higher level of competitiveness.

“The Rionegro [Antioquia factory] property will be destined for the development of an industrial park, which will represent additional income for the company.

“Fabricato will reorient its production program internally without considering the use of 100% of its installed capacity as a primary objective, controlling in a more strict way the level of inventories and stimulating the anticipated programming by the customers; this will represent a better flow of business and consequently a lower stress on cash flow.

“In November 2017, the national government accepted the anti-dumping proceeding against denim fabrics of Chinese origin. This measure will allow local producers to access this portion of the market.

“In December 2017, the national government issued a decree in which the price thresholds for the importation of textile products were defined, with the aim of providing a solution to the problem of under-invoiced imports. This measure covers approximately 30% of textile imports of 2017 from all sources and specifications, and will also allow local producers to access this portion of the market.

“As of the second half of last year, the intensification of operations against smuggling was perceived. In one of them, the largest in recent history in the country, record volumes of smuggled products were apprehended, leading to the extinction of several companies.

“In addition to these measures, and their expected positive consequences, the expectation of a business environment will also be positive for the year 2018. Some indicators that lead us to this optimistic view are the higher price of oil, the reduction in the basic interest rate, controlled inflation, the improvement of consumer perception and the good turnover that was perceived at the end of 2017.

“Due to the foregoing, we believe that the year 2017 does not reflect a structural change in the business environment; We understand that many factors of negative impact coincided in this year and that they were delayed by the competent authorities.

“We certify a gradual recovery of our businesses starting in 2018, as the stocks of imported products under unfair practices are depleted,” the company concluded.


Medellin-based pension-fund administrator Protección announced March 16 that its full-year 2017 net income rose 34% year-on-year, to COP$343 billion (US$120 million).

Protección is one of the largest of the private pension funds in Colombia, and also owns the “AFP Crecer” pension fund in El Salvador.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) rose 17% year-on-year, to COP$489 billion (US$171 million), with an EBITDA margin of 42%, up 6.48% year-on-year.

Commenting on the positive results, Protección cited “demographic changes that heighten the urgency to save from an earlier age, for a life expectancy that continues to grow.”

While Colombian gross domestic product (GDP) grew by a weak 1.8% last year, key financial markets outperformed, as the S&P 500 stock index soared 22% and Colombia’s “Colcap” stock index gained 12% last year, the company noted.

Protección administers three funds – “obligatory” pensions (contributions from workers and employers); “voluntary” pensions (contributions entirely from individuals) and worker-compensation funds (“cesantias”), collectively covering 6.7 million Colombians. Proteccion’s assets-under-management (AUM) for these three funds now tops COP$91 trillion (US$32 billion).

The “obligatory” sector accounts for the bulk of AUM, at COP$82 trillion (US$28 billion). This fund covers 4.4 million workers and 32,000 current pensioners. Proteccion has a 36% share of the Colombian “obligatory” pension market (measured by AUM) and 29.6% by number of affiliated workers.

The “voluntary” sector assets under Protección management hit COP$7.2 trillion (US$2.5 billion) in 2017, or 42.3% of the entire Colombian “voluntary” pension sector (as measured AOM) and 53.9% by number of persons affiliated, the company added.

Outlook for 2018

Meanwhile, Protección now foresees a relatively positive outlook for 2018, based on assumptions including three more interest-rate hikes by the U.S. Federal Reserve and better GDP growth in Colombia this year.

“We agree with [Colombian government] and International Monetary Fund forecasts indicating [Colombian] GDP growth between 2.8% and 3%” this year, according to Protección.

“As for the [Colombian national] pension system, we are sure the next government will make adjustments [following this spring’s elections],” the company added.

“We have to face the reality of longer life-spans. The portion of adults in the general population will more-than triple by 2050 in Latin America -- from 16.5 million today to 55.8 million -- in contrast to general population growth of only 20%.

“These factors will force us to act in advance -- to develop complementary models for pensions as well as [to improve] public education about savings,” the company added.


EPM 2017 Net Profit Jumps 19% Year-on-Year

Wednesday, 21 March 2018 10:21 Written by

Medellin-based multinational utilities giant EPM announced March 20 that full-year 2017 net profits rose 19% year-on-year, to COP$2.2 trillion (US$772 million).

As a result, the city of Medellin – EPM’s sole owner -- netted COP$1.2 trillion (US$421 million) in profit-sharing, accounting for roughly 20% of the city’s total finances.

EPM also invested COP$2.5 trillion (US$877 million) in water, power and sewage infrastructure in Antioquia last year, the company added. Of that total, COP$1.7 trillion (US$596 million) went into the continuing construction of the US$5 billion, 2.4-gigawatt “Hidroituango” hydroelectric plant in Antioquia, due for initial start-up at year-end 2018.

“When EPM does well, Medellín and its inhabitants win, because there are more resources via transfers for social programs and for the development of the city,” the company added.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) rose 27% year-on-year, to COP$3.1 billion (US$1.08 billion).

Despite profit improvements, Colombian revenues actually declined 12% year-on-year, to COP$7.4 trillion (US$2.6 billion) because of the impact of relatively rainy 2016 (helping hydropower output) versus the relatively drier 2017.

Consolidated revenues (all subsidiaries included) were COP$14.9 trillion (US$5.2 billion), of which EPM’s Colombia parent contributed 48%, foreign subsidiaries 35%, national energy subsidiaries 15% and national water subsidiaries 2%, according to the company.

EPM general manager Jorge Londoño de la Cuesta added that 2017 delivered the highest net profit in company history, mainly thanks to “proper management of costs and expenses.”

Corporate-wide debt-to-EBITDA ratio improved to 3.43 in 2017 versus 3.69 in 2016

Total asset value rose 10% year-on-year, to COP$47.3 trillion (US$16.6 billion), while equity grew 5%, to COP$20.9 trillion (US$7.3 billion), the company added.


Page 1 of 31

SILLETEROS PARADE 2016 by JOHN AND DONNA STORMZAND (click to enlarge)

MEDELLÍN PHOTOS by Gabriel Buitrago (click to enlarge)

Featured

Volunteering February 20 2017 0
As the late North American philosopher A.B. Johnson once quipped, “mighty oaks from little acorns…

About Medellin Herald

Medellin Herald is a locally produced, English-language news and advisory service uniquely focused upon a more-mature audience of visitors, investors, conference and trade-show attendees, property buyers, expats, retirees, volunteers and nature lovers.

U.S. native Roberto Peckham, who founded Medellin Herald in 2015, has been residing in metro Medellin since 2005 and has traveled regularly and extensively throughout Colombia since 1981.

Medellin Herald welcomes your editorial contributions, comments and story-idea suggestions. Send us a message using the "contact" section.

Contact US

logo def
Medellin Herald: Find news, information, reviews and opinion on business, events, conferences, congresses, education, real estate, investing, retiring and more.
  • COL (4) 386 06 27
  • USA (1) 305 517 76 35
  •  www.medellinherald.com 
  •  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
  • Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia

Medellín Photo Galery

Medellin, contrasting colors and styles by Gabriel Buitrago
MPGMPGMPGMPGMPGMPGMPGMPGMPGMPGMPGnav