Tuesday, September 28, 2021

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Colombia President Ivan Duque today (September 14) signed far-reaching tax and social-benefits legislation that promises to benefit more than 29 million poor- and middle-class Colombians -- while also putting a heavier tax burden on wealthier individuals and corporations.

Not only is the legislation progressive -- contradicting some biased media reports and some blowhards that paint Duque as a “right-wing” President -- but also it’s remarkable that the bill passed both houses of Congress in the final months of a four-year presidential term. Getting anything done legislatively when Colombian presidents are leaving soon is almost unheard-of in Colombian politics.

The new law also “makes Colombia the first country in the hemisphere to carry out a social and fiscal reform in the midst of the pandemic,” according to Duque.

The bill aims to raise COP$15.2 trillion (US$3.97 billion) by raising the corporate income tax rate to 35%, cracking down on tax evasion, cutting non-mandated federal expenses, and continuing the existing financial-transfers tax and the ICA tax.

As for social benefits, the bill gives all students in lower-income strata (1, 2 and 3) free tuition at all public schools; extends the “solidarity income” subsidy for hiring young people; refunds the 19% value-added tax (VAT) to poorer people; extends the “emergency basic income” subsidy -- created at the start of the Covid-19 pandemic -- through 2022, and continues a variety of income subsidies for senior citizens, young people and poor families.

“Thanks to the application of the law, extreme poverty levels will be reduced from 15.1% in 2020 to 6.7% in 2022,” according to Duque. “Moderate poverty levels will also decrease from 42.5% in 2020 to 34.3% in 2022. In total, 4.1 million households will benefit from Solidarity Income, equivalent to 14.3 million people,” he added.

The employment subsidies included in the bill are projected to recover around 1 million jobs and help slash unemployment to levels prior to the pandemic outbreak.

“Every [temporary subsidy measure] that arose in the midst of the [Covid-19] complexities today becomes state policy thanks to the assistance of the political parties, unions, youth, governors and mayors,” Duque added, citing the broad coalitions that backed the new legislation.

“The Formal Employment Support Program [PAEF in Spanish initials] is historic for what it represents. This year, when we see the reactivation [of the national economy], we are not going to put it aside. On the contrary, we know that there are companies that are still affected and there are sectors that are just getting ahead and, therefore, retroactively, from May this year to December this year, the PAEF has also become an effective response to the needs of the Colombian people.

“And new elements are added: support for women, support for the population with disabilities, support, also, for those who were victims of the [‘Paro National’ riots and] blockades, those who wanted to destroy and who, too, were affected in their lives, in their income. They, too, are answered,” Duque added.

“But let it  also be clear: The solution has not been at the cost of taking away competitiveness from the private sector, but of maintaining it -- and I say this because of the following: this reform maintains the 100% VAT discount on capital goods. This reform maintains the elimination of presumptive income [from tax]. Because even with the increase in the nominal [corporate tax] rate [to 35%], it is still a rate substantially lower than the one we had in 2018 and, also, because the ICA tax deduction is left at 50%.

“In other words, the private sector contributes, but maintains the competitiveness gained in these years, to continue making Colombia an attractive place for foreign investment,” Duque concluded.


Medellin’s Mobility Secretariat this afternoon (September 3) finally unveiled its long-awaited rules on the upcoming “pico y placa” driving restrictions that start Monday, September 6.

Under the new rules (see: https://www.medellin.gov.co/irj/go/km/docs/pccdesign/medellin/Temas/NuestroGobierno/Publicaciones/Shared%20Content/Documentos/2021/Decreto-0730-de-2021-Pico-y-Placa.pdf), starting September 6, cars and light trucks (under 3.5 tons) with license plates ending in 0 are banned from circulation from 5 am to 8 pm.

The following day (September 7), cars and light trucks with plates ending in 1 are banned, then cars with plates ending in 2 are banned on September 8, and so-on.

The climbing-numbers rotation starts all over again on Monday, September 20, with the same numerical sequences -- plate numbers variously ending from 0 to 9 -- banned from circulation each corresponding day from Monday through Friday (see chart, above).

For the first two weeks (through September 17), the restrictions are “educational,” but starting September 20, the longstanding, historic “pico y placa” fines begin, according to the Secretariat.

Certain routes that pass through the entire Medellin metro area are exempted from the restrictions, including Autopista Sur, Avenida Regional and the parallel Avenida Occidental (the highways that run alongside Rio Medellin); Avenida 33 from Rio Medellin to its connection at Las Palmas; Avenida Las Palmas; and La Iguaná.

Also exempt are the eastward/westward roads alongside the La Iguaná stream between Avenues 63 and 80, and the east-to-westward segment of highway from the Horacio Toro bridge connection to La Iguana heading westward.

Exempt vehicles include fully electric and hybrid-electric cars; compressed-natural-gas-fueled cars; ambulances; buses; heavy trucks; public service vehicles; fire trucks; wreckers; health/medicines transport vehicles; and all types of emergency vehicles. Food/perishables transport vehicles also can be exempted if properly registered.

Enforcement will be especially strict on 40 heavily-trafficked, inner-city road routes as specified in the new regulation. But rural Medellin’s outlying, rural routes are exempt.

As for motorcycles, their “pico y placa” restrictions start October 4, the new rules show. Motorcycles making home-deliveries will be exempted.

AMVA Cities Follow Medellin's Lead

Hours after Medellin formally announced its pico-y-placa rules, Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburra (AMVA) -- the coordinating agency for the 10 cities in metro Medellin -- unveiled its parallel guidance for the whole metro area (see: https://www.metropol.gov.co/Paginas/Noticias/pico-y-placa-empezara-a-regir-a-partir-del-6-de-septiembre.aspx).

That regional guidance includes internet links to each of the individual city regulations, which mainly follow the Medellin rules. For example, all 10 cities incorporate the 5 am-to-8 pm daily driving bans on individual vehicles, the same day/plate number rotations, and the same exclusions for certain vehicles (such as electric/hybrid vehicles, natural-gas vehicles, buses, etcetera). 


Area Metropolitana de Valle de Aburrá (AMVA) – the metro Medellin government coordinating agency – announced August 26 that “pico y placa” driving restrictions -- initially targeted for October 4 -- instead will return for all 10 cities in the Medellin metro area starting in September.

“By consensus, the mayors of the metro area decided to apply the ‘pico-y-placa’ measure once every 15 days for all vehicles, including two- and four-stroke motorcycles,” according to AMVA. “The measure will reduce vehicular traffic between 7% and 10%.”

Under the revised scheme, driving restrictions officially start September 6 -- during a two-week "education" phase -- for vehicles with license plates ending in 0. On September 18, as-yet-unspecified fines will start to be imposed on violators.

"The mobility restriction will be between 5:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m., Monday through Friday," according to AMVA. 

License-plate rotations will be "one digit every 15 days," presumably meaning that plates ending in 1 would be banned on September 7, ending in 2 on September 8, and so-on. However, AMVA failed to specify explictly the exact day/plate-number rotation sequences.

"Pico y placa" bans also will hit two- and four-stroke motorcycles starting October 4, according to AMVA.

"Each municipality [that is, the 10 cities in the AMVA area] must issue a decree to apply the measures in its territory," but AMVA didn't explain exactly what this means. Presumably, Medellin could have rules or fines differing from Envigado or Bello, for example. 


Colombia Finance Minister José Manuel Restrepo on July 13 unveiled a COP$11 trillion (US$2.9 billion) tax hike on wealthier corporations in order to expand and continue subsidies to especially vulnerable populations economically slammed by the Covid-19 crisis.

The proposal DOES NOT include any new taxes on middle-class people, nor does it boost the existing value-added sales tax (“IVA” in Spanish initials) -- which in any case mainly hits higher-income people rather than the poor. But it will boost the corporate tax rate to 35% and extend financial-sector income-tax surcharges to 2025.

The bill comes on the heels of two months of consultations with representatives of understandably frustrated social groups including poor people, workers, small-business people, students as well as Colombia’s leading business trade associations -- including ANDI (originally founded in Medellin).

It also comes on the heels of financially punishing Wall Street debt-ratings downgrades on government and corporations, which unfortunately cripple the government’s ability to finance subsidies to poor people, the working classes, small business and huge numbers of unemployed young people -- all slammed by the Covid-19 crisis.

Commenting on the new proposal, ANDI President Bruce MacMaster stated: “I must say that the business sector is going to support this effort. And it will do so with a patriotic, supportive, important, developed spirit . . . [We need to] generate economic reactivation, to generate reduction in unemployment, to generate more opportunities for Colombians and to address this [massive fiscal deficit] situation,” he added.

The bill would extend and expand existing Covid-19-triggered subsidy programs including the “Solidarity Income” subsidy (through 2022) and the "Payroll Subsidy" (PAEF) program (through December 2021), according to the Finance Minister.

The Solidarity Income subsidy expansion “would allow more than 731,000 Colombians living in extreme poverty who today do not receive any benefits from the state to start doing so for the first time. With this, the program would reach a total of 3.3 million households,” Minister Restrepo explained.

Cost of the Solidarity Income subsidy would hit COP$2.31 trillion (US$608 million) in 2021 and another COP$6.59 trillion (US$1.7 billion) in 2022, he said.

Meanwhile, extension of the PAEF payroll subsidy for the second semester of 2021 “would support about 459,000 employees through a scheme that encourages the hiring of young people between 18 and 28 years old, along with the rest of the population with incomes of up to three minimum wages,” he added. That cost will total COP$1.06 trillion (US$279 million).

“We will focus the program on small companies and will include individuals with businesses that employ at least two people,” Restrepo explained. As a result, another 55,000 employers are expected to apply for payroll subsidies, corresponding to 400,000 employees.

Meanwhile, the new tax bill would grant free tuition at public universities and trade schools for 695,000 students in the lower-income “1, 2 and 3” strata, along with “incentives and better conditions to users of ‘Icetex’ educational credits,” he said.

“With these measures and the social programs in force, the national government will reach more than 25 million Colombians who will benefit” via subsidies totaling COP$8.8 trillion (US$2.3 billion) in 2021 and another COP$8 trillion (US$2.1 billion) in 2022, he said.

The proposal also contains a government-austerity plan that aims to generate recurring savings of COP$1.9 trillion (US$500 million) between 2022 and 2032, on average. This includes a restriction starting in 2023 on personnel expenses along with reductions in travel expenses, vehicle expenses and mobile-phone expenses, he said.

Transfers of federal revenues to Colombia’s 34 departments also would be trimmed “without affecting those mandated by the Constitution, such as Social Security, public universities” and other legally mandated payments, he said.

Another provision aiming to crack down on tax evaders would boost revenues by some $2.7 trillion (US$710 million), he added. In addition, a new “georeferenced information system” would aim to “detect the real value of declared properties and allow income tax to be invoiced based on information from the electronic invoice and information reported by third parties,” according to the Minister.

Meanwhile, the existing “ICA” tax on corporations would be trimmed by 50%, but an income-tax surcharge on Colombia’s financial sector would be extended until 2025.

Once including all the new tax provisions, austerity measures and anti-evasion efforts, Colombia’s tax revenues would be boosted by COP$15.2 trillion (US$4 billion), the Minister added.


Colombia President Ivan Duque announced June 8 that the dumped body of Colombian police officer Carlos Andrés Rincón has now been recovered, following his kidnapping, torture and murder by protesters participating in the “Comite del Paro” national strikes and roadblocks.

The policeman had been in the vicinity of an illegal road blockade in Cali, where Colombia’s worst protest violence has taken place over the past five weeks – resulting in several deaths and dozens of injuries, along with rioter destruction and burning of buildings, vehicles, offices, businesses, banks, public transport, ambulances and catastrophic blockage of thousands of critical freight shipments and medical supplies needed in much of the nation.

While the “Comite del Paro” has been demanding the elimination of riot-police – claiming that all police have been recklessly attacking “innocent” protesters and ignoring citizen-vigilante justice – the Colombian government is demanding that rioters mounting illegal blockades, murdering and attacking policemen, burning buildings and vehicles and wrecking public transport infrastructure must be prosecuted.

The government is simultaneously moving to investigate, prosecute and imprison some wayward police officers using excessive force or wrongly shooting some protesters.

To address such abuses, a new, “comprehensive transformation strategy” for Colombia’s national police will be contained in a bill to be delivered to Congress on July 20, according to President Duque.

The bill will include a new “Human Rights Directorate” inside the National Police, a new “Disciplinary Statute” including “restructuring of the General Inspectorate, supervision and control of the police service and a new system for receiving, processing and monitoring complaints and reports,” President Duque said.

The bill also calls for further “professionalization and police development with the launch of a Police Standards Center and a new Police University,” according to Duque.

As under current Colombian and international law, the use of force -- even deadly force -- by police is legal only in response to life-threatening violence employed by criminals, guerrillas and violent rioters. Peaceful demonstrations are respected and guaranteed under Colombia’s Constitution.

The bill also will include new funding for aerial surveillance systems and other high technologies, including body cameras incorporated into new police uniforms.

“I have given a clear instruction to Defense Minister Diego Molano to prioritize the processing of the new project on police careers and professionalization. I have also given him an instruction so that, on July 20, we present the bill for a new Police Disciplinary Statute, which modernizes the one that has already existed for 15 years,” President Duque announced.

“This also leads us to strengthen the rules on the use of force. The use of force has been regulated by law and by procedures, but [new rules will] strengthen our norms regarding the use, carrying and employment of less-lethal weapons, and include all standards in the fight against riots and acts of vandalism, strengthened by international cooperation,” he added.

“We want more technology, better technology, so that the police service is also open to any type of scrutiny. We hope to accelerate the application of bodycams, body cameras, in citizen security procedures, so that all traceability remains and, in addition, police honor is clearly identified in the more than 30 million procedures” that Colombia’s national police handle annually.

“I have also instructed to strengthen the existing camera services, and also drones, so that we have monitoring, and also have real-time reading of all police procedures, especially those that have to do with facing riots, with facing acts of vandalism,” President Duque added.


The Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Interna (ACMI) and dozens more of Colombia’s leading medical associations on June 7 issued a joint declaration slamming decisions by various mayors in Colombia -- including Medellin Mayor Daniel Quintero -- declaring a “total reopening” of all businesses and mass events starting today (June 8) – even while Covid-19 cases are actually growing and many hospitals are jammed to overflowing.

The groups also slammed Colombia Health Minister Fernando Ruiz for issuing the new "Resolution 777" that conditionally allows reopening of virtually all business sectors and mass events except for cities with 85% or more occupation of intensive care units (ICUs), as currently is the unfortunate situation in Medellin and Antioquia.

However, Medellin as of today seems to be side-stepping the “85% rule.”

Making the public-health situation worse is the never-ending series of mass protest gatherings organized by the “Comite del Paro,” which includes various left-wing politicians, trade unions, some student groups and – overwhelmingly -- hundreds of thousands of young people left unemployed by the economic fallout of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Colombia today is among the top-10 nations in the world with the greatest number of Covid-19 cases, having doubled the daily case rate just in the last 40 days, the medical groups note.

With a reported 3.1% mortality rate for Covid-19 cases in Colombia, this means that in the next few weeks, Covid deaths could rise to between 500 to 800 people daily, according to the medical groups.

Meanwhile, emergency-room services in hospitals in Colombia's main cities are already 200% to 300% over-crowded, and ICU occupancy is well over 90% in Medellin and Bogota, according to the medical groups.

On top of all these problems, "more than 40% of health professionals present alarming levels of burnout, anxiety, depression and physical stress," according to the groups.

Meanwhile, according to a June 7 bulletin from the departmental government of Antioquia, Medellin alone reported 1,063 new cases of Covid-19 yesterday, just under half of the 2,297 new cases department-wide.

“Antioquia has an ICU bed occupancy percentage of 96.71%,” the Antioquia government bulletin added.

Ironically, Medellin Mayor Daniel Quintero issued a press bulletin June 5 bragging about the “total reopenings” starting today (June 8).

“The artistic and cultural sector will have a reopening of large capacity gatherings to 100%, with the biosafety measures approved by the national government,” according to the Mayor’s official press bulletin.

Among those upcoming events: the 15th annual “International Tango Festival” from June 24 to 30; the annual Medellin Flower Festival and Silleteros Parade from August 12 to 22; and the large-crowds “Colombiamoda” and “Colombiatex” trade shows at Medellin’s Plaza Mayor convention center, he said.

In the case of the Tango Festival concerts, “we are going to have some stands for people who are vaccinated and others for those who are not vaccinated, and we are going to have different distances” between people to help avoid more infections, Mayor Quintero stated.

Vaccination Rate Growing

Meanwhile, Colombia’s Health Ministry announced June 4 that at least 17 million Colombians should have gotten at least one dose of Covid vaccine by end-June.

While more than 11 million Colombians have already gotten at least one dose, vaccination rates are increasing to a range of 200,000 to 300,000 people daily, according to the Ministry.

Health Vice-Minister Luis Alexander Moscoso added that “it would seem illogical to generate a [total economic] reopening, but precisely these are the moments in which we have to build the future” as Colombia faces the twin crises of massive unemployment among youth along with high numbers of Covid-19 cases.

Meanwhile, Health Ministry director of prevention Gerson Bermont added that the “Comite del Paro” demonstrations and road blockades over the past four weeks have exacerbated Covid-19 problems.

“There were difficult days when we were not able to bring vaccines to IPS [hospitals and clinics] or to municipalities due to the blockades,” Bermont stated.

Despite the violent protest actions, Colombia nevertheless has managed to import 16.2 million doses of vaccines, of which 14.3 million doses have been delivered to various cities and territories and more than 11 million doses have been applied, including about 3.5 million second doses, he noted.


Colombia’s Superintendency of Transport (Supertransporte) announced June 4 that it has issued a new control order against Mexico-based airline Interjet, which had been offering flights to and from Colombia.

Interjet filed for bankruptcy in March 2021.

According to Supertransporte, the latest control order is the second sanction brought against Interjet “for not complying with the orders issued since last November 9, 2020, which included issuing and disseminating a press release indicating to users the channels and schedules of the that the airline has to receive and respond in a timely manner to requests, complaints and claims submitted by users, and present and implement a user service plan, among other provisions.”

In addition, Supertransporte “notified the Superintendencies of Industry and Commerce and Companies to investigate alleged infractions of the competition protection regime and the exchange regime, respectively,” according to the agency.

The Supertransporte control order requires Interjet to appear before the Superintendency of companies to face a “business insolvency process” for “presenting a critical accounting, financial, legal and administrative situation. This situation affects the provision of the public air transport service,” according to the agency.

“This is the first airline that is summoned to a process of insolvency by the inspection, surveillance and control authority in the framework of the pandemic caused by Covid-19,” the agency stated.

Interjet retains rights to appeal the decision, the agency added.


Colombia Health Minister Fernando Ruiz announced this morning (June 3) that Colombia has abolished the current mandate for airports to demand that international passenger arrivals must have passed a PCR test against Covid-19 infections -- and likewise will no longer require “Coronapp” cell-phone health data for domestic airline passengers.

Simultaneously, Minister Ruiz revealed that under new rules, cities can begin reactivating many types of businesses and events – under certain conditions -- which heretofore have been banned or severely restricted because of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Under the new “Decree 580” and “Resolution 777” rules, cities that have more-than 85% occupancy of intensive care units (ICUs) cannot undergo “total reactivation” starting next week -- contradicting a June 1 public proclamation made by Medellin Mayor Daniel Quintero claiming that Medellin will have “total reactivation” starting June 8.

The obstacle: Medellin and Antioquia have ICU capacities well over 90% because of continuing high levels of Covid-19 cases, according to the most recent Antioquia departmental data.

“As long as a municipality is above 85%, all restrictive measures are maintained, especially in what has to do with bars, discos, events and crowds,” Minister Ruiz explained.

But whenever a municipality falls below 85% of ICU occupancy, then “opening possibilities are generated with capacity adjusted to the progress of the National Vaccination Plan,” according to the new Ministry rule.

“A city lower than an [85% ICU occupancy] percentage can start with 25% capacity for open public events,” according to the Minister. “Even in closed events, recommendations are included where the minimum distance [between people] can be one meter, which increases the capacity,” as is currently allowed for church or synagogue services and gymnasiums, he added.

“For such scenarios there are special measures such as the use of face masks, which is reinforced in the new regulations, ventilation, washing and disinfection of hands, the new minimum distance between people and indications for self-care,” according to the Ministry.

The new rules allow “a safe opening with conditions that allow us to graduate [to more liberal standards] as vaccination grows and as cities pass that third peak” of the current “third wave” of Covid-19 infections, Ruiz explained.

“This does not mean that we cannot have a fourth peak. The impact continues, but also as we manage to vaccinate, advance and finish ‘phase 1’ of vaccination, of these three initial stages where we are with the most vulnerable people, we can surely have an affectation with a lower mortality rate,” he added.

Compulsory and correct use of a face mask, constant hand washing or disinfection and physical distancing are part of the general measures that are maintained under the new rules, he added.

The current lengthy procedures to obtain permits for the holding of events will be replaced by an "index that we are creating, called the 'Resilience Index,' which basically determines how far along a city is advanced in vaccination, how much is the ICU occupation, what is the prevalence of infected people in that city, and the positive testing rate of the virus through tests," he added.

More Vaccines, More Private Options

Meanwhile, millions more vaccines from foreign vendors are arriving in Colombia this week, hence supporting and advancing the National Vaccination Plan, he said.

“Yesterday [June 2] 580,000 Pfizer vaccines arrived in the country and today [June 3] another 500,000 from the same laboratory will arrive. Tomorrow will arrive another 1 million vaccines from AstraZeneca and next Sunday [June 6] another 1 million doses of vaccines arrive from Sinovac,” he revealed.

As for the upcoming plan to allow private companies to vaccinate their employees, this is likely to start by the end of June, he explained.

“At this moment we already have an agreement with a significant number of [companies and employee associations] for vaccines acquired through the contract that the national government has with Sinovac, where progress is being made in the acquisition of 2.5 million vaccines,” he added.

This week, the Health Ministry will issue a resolution “that refines aspects for the vaccination of private individuals,” he explained.

Medellín Mayor ‘Total Reactivation’ Plan Includes Tax Cut Proposal

On a parallel front, Medellin Mayor Daniel Quintero announced June 1 that as part of the claimed “total reactivation” of the local economy supposedly starting June 8, new job-building tax cuts for businesses will be proposed to the Medellin City Council this month.

“The incentive for foreign investment will be given through the reduction of the Industry and Commerce Tax for companies that have settled in Medellín,” according to the Mayor’s office.

“We are going to reduce taxes for those who help us to reactivate the economy of the city. We want to encourage technology-based companies to locate in Medellín,” Quintero stated.

The new, five-year tax breaks would apply to “technology-based companies based in the city, including those created last year,” according to the Mayor’s office.

“In the first and second year they will have a discount of 100%, in the third of 80%, in the fourth of 60% and in the fifth of 40%.

“Companies that are located in ‘Orange Development Areas’ (San Ignacio, Comuna 13, Prado and Perpetuo Socorro) will have benefits in the payment of their industrial and commercial obligations. In the first year, the discount will be 100%, in the second, 80%, in the third, 60%, in the fourth, 40%, and in the fifth, 20%.”

The proposal also includes foreign companies that newly set-up and create jobs in Medellín. Such companies “will receive tax benefits for five years, with a discount of 100% in the first year, 80% in the second, 60% in the third, 40% in the fourth and 20% in the fifth,” according to the Mayor’s office.

“It is expected that in mid-June the Medellín Council will have a free hand to proceed with the proposals made to reactivate the city’s economy,” including the expansion of international tourism to the city, the office added.


Antioquia Acting Governor Luis Fernando Suarez announced last night (May 24) that while midnight-to-5-am curfews and booze bans continue from today through June 1 (into early June 2), “pico y cedula” shopping restrictions are now lifted.

However, mandatory mask wearing, social distancing and strict public/private health protocols will continue as long as the Covid-19 threat continues, he added.

The new move to lift “pico y cedula” restrictions (limiting daily shopping trips to people with cedulas ending either in odd or even numbers) came after consultations with all the mayors in Antioquia, Governor Suarez said.

The governor meanwhile urged all restaurants, bars and commercial establishments to enforce existing measures to limit the number of people inside such establishments in order to help thwart the spread of Coronavirus.

Colombia Nears 25% Vaccination

Meanwhile, Colombia’s Health Minister Fernando Ruiz added that the nation is nearing its goal of having at least 10 million people initially vaccinated by end-May or early June, with more than one-third of those having gotten the required two doses.

Colombia aims to have at least 70% of its most vulnerable populations vaccinated this year, with the latest “group 3” population (those 50 and older) just now starting to get their shots.


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About Medellin Herald

Medellin Herald is a locally produced, English-language news and advisory service uniquely focused upon a more-mature audience of visitors, investors, conference and trade-show attendees, property buyers, expats, retirees, volunteers and nature lovers.

U.S. native Roberto Peckham, who founded Medellin Herald in 2015, has been residing in metro Medellin since 2005 and has traveled regularly and extensively throughout Colombia since 1981.

Medellin Herald welcomes your editorial contributions, comments and story-idea suggestions. Send us a message using the "contact" section.

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